Burnt clay bricks are also known as common bricks because they are the most abundant brick type in modern construction. These bricks are used in columns, walls, foundations, and more with a wide variety of purposes. When building walls, the burnt clay bricks require plastering or rendering with mortar to help improve the bricks’ strength, water resistance, and insulating ability.
Sun-Dried Clay Bricks
Some DIYers might prefer to make these simple sun-dried clay bricks, which have been used as far back as 7,000 BC in southern Turkey and around the city of Jericho in modern-day Palestine. The bricks comprise a mixture of loamy soil, water, and straw; they also might include manure, clay, or sand to improve their strength and prevent the bricks from cracking.
Typically used in internal brickwork or to make facades and fences, these bricks are made from solid concrete. The concrete is poured into custom molds, allowing manufacturers to create a variety of sizes and shapes. Many people may find these bricks at a local hardware store or masonry supplier.
The first entry on our list of different types of cement in Pakistan is blast furnace cement. It is known as slag cement in the local lingo. As the name implies, it is produced from the mixture of three main elements, including ordinary cement [or Portland cement], ground granulated blast furnace slag, Portland clinker, and a little gypsum. The main ingredient in the production of this particular type of cement is ground granulated blast furnace slag, which constitutes around 20 to 70% varying of the total cement by weight. Due to its affordability, it is mostly used as a replacement for sulphate-resistant and low-heat cement.
PORTLAND POZZOLANA CEMENT
Portland pozzolana cement is not any different than the one mentioned above since fly ash is pozzolan. The only thing that sets these two apart is the fact that Portland pozzolan cement uses natural or artificial pozzolans. It is widely used as a substitute for cement in concrete mixtures.
Portland silica fume cement is another interesting type of cement in Pakistan, produced from the combination of silica fume [about 80 percent] and ordinary cement [about 20 percent]. It is widely known for its binding properties, and the combination of both mixtures enhances the strength, abrasion, and resistance of a structure.
Annealed glass is a basic product formed from the annealing stage of the float process. The molten glass is allowed to cool slowly in a controlled way until it reaches room temperature, relieving any internal stresses in the glass. Without this controlled slow cooling, glass would crack with relatively little change in temperature or slight mechanical shock. Annealed glass is used as a base product to form more advanced glass types.
Heat Strengthened Glass
Heat Strengthened Glass is semi tempered or semi toughened glass. The heat strengthening process involves heating annealed glass back up to about 650 to 700 degrees Celsius and then cooling it quickly, although not as fast as with toughened glass. The heat strengthening process increases the mechanical and thermal strength of annealed glass, making it twice as tough as annealed glass.
Tempered or Toughened Glass
This is the most common type of glass used in balustrades or similar structural applications. Annealed glass is heated to about 700 degrees Celsius by conduction, convection and radiation. The cooling process is accelerated by a uniform and simultaneous blast of air on both surfaces. The different cooling rates between the surface and the inside of the glass produces different physical properties, resulting in compressive stresses in the surface balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the glass.
Carbon steel looks dull, matte-like, and is known to be vulnerable to corrosion. Overall, there are three subtypes to this one: low, medium, and high carbon steel, with low containing about .30% of carbon, medium .60%, and high 1.5%. The name itself actually comes from the reality that they contain a very small amount of other alloying elements. They are exceptionally strong, which is why they are often used to make things like knives, high-tension wires, automotive parts, and other similar items.
Next up is alloy steel, which is a mixture of several different metals, like nickel, copper, and aluminum. These tend to be more on the cheaper side, more resistant to corrosion and are favored for some car parts, pipelines, ship hulls, and mechanical projects. For this one, the strength depends on the concentration of the elements that it contains.
Tool steel is famous for being hard and both heat and scrape resistant. The name is derived from the fact that they are very commonly used to make metal tools, like hammers. For these, they are made up of things like cobalt, molybdenum, and tungsten, and that is the underlying reason why tool steel has such advanced durability and heat resistance features.
Cedar is an aromatic and naturally rot- and bug-resistant softwood, and it’s well-known for its beauty and durability. It comes from a variety of coniferous trees, with white and red cedars being the most common. As the name suggests, white cedar is paler and weathers to a pleasant silvery gray. Red cedar has an amber appearance and will weather to a deep, rich brownish-red.
Fir, or Douglas fir, is a very hard and durable softwood, and it comes from a tree species of the same name. Douglas fir trees grow very tall, reaching heights of 200 to 300 feet if left to their own devices in the forest. The wood is rot- and insect-resistant, but not quite to the degree of a cedar.
Pine is a very soft wood that’s incredibly easy to work with. It comes from a variety of pine trees grown all over the United States. Common types include sugar, white, ponderosa, and southern yellow pine. It’s less dense than others and easy to work with, but it doesn’t tend to offer much bug or rot resistance.